Sunday, March 15, 2020
Homogenizing The Homosexual Essays - Same-sex Sexuality, Free Essays Homogenizing The Homosexual On a hot June night in 1969 the sexual discourses of theology, law and psychology encountered resistance so strong that millions of lives were changed. In a small gay bar in New York, the regulars, an eclectic mix of drag queens, transexuals, effeminate men and butch women, offered up the most visible resistance ever witnessed to the relentless exercising of public power on their private lives. The three-day street riot, began by Stonewall patrons, spilled onto the front pages and television screens of a nation. The exposure placed the queen, queer and dyke in the living rooms, kitchens and supermarkets of straight America. The resistance of gays to the external and internal subjectification of themselves as sinners, sodomites and psychopaths began. Before this seminal event, gays were known, but their lives operated in the back streets and alleyways of urban life. They were invisible to mainstream North Americans and expected to stay in the shadows where their deviant bodies belonged. The patrons of the Stonewall bar lived at the precipice of gay life. Their adoption of cross dressing was an affront to prevailing sexual norms. Women in suits and men in scarves and chiffon were the most identifiable of deviants and they relished their disobedience. Strutting through urban nights they gleefully thumbed their noses at the heterosexual world. They embraced every stereotype and took the constitution of the gay subject to extremes. The visibility of these men and women made them easy targets for random displays of force by police. Haphazard attacks on gay bars and clubs instilled fear of the unknown. The visible cared little about the repercussions of these raids for they had nothing to lose. For this they were shunned by their gay brethren who viewed them as circus sideshow freaks. These queens, queers and dykes were dangerous. Their openness put average gays at risk. The physical and verbal abuse by police, abandonment by families and lack of social opportunity experience by the most identifiable queers kept most of North Americas gays firmly underground. Under the guises of religion, law and science, power was being exercised to keep gays marginalized and hidden. Most happily acquiesced. With the fear of verbal, physical or social reprisals looming large, they became prisoners of their own making in Michel Foucaults vision of panoptic power. Invisible gays continually surveyed themselves for any outward signs of their sin that would lead to public detection. With only the images and words of repressive discourses to constitute themselves, the invisible queers, internalized disgust and spent their lives under constant self-surveillance. These stifling conditions ignited the need for the relation of power between straights and gays to shift focus. Near domination and the excessive uses of force were producing an entropic situation in need of diversion to a more productive state. Stonewall provided the necessary response. Three nights of fighting, shouting and revelry that confounded police commanded the immediate attention of heterosexuals everywhere. More importantly it garnered the freaks the respect and admiration of the millions of silent women and men across North America. For gays, a movement was being born and a new, more productive power structure was emerging. In the aftermath of Stonewall, many gays felt empowered to go public and change the repressive statutes that governed their lives. Collectively, the truth that they were not deviants to be beaten, souls to be saved or in need of psychiatry materialized. Nothing was wrong with their psychological or spiritual states. Claims of normalcy were becoming self evident through the eyes of the new scientific discourse of biology. No blame was to be laid nor pity bestowed, nature had made them. The prescience of this biological discourse laid the fertile ground for the exercising of Foucaults bio power upon the gay subject. The reduction of fear and militancy generated by the rioters helped to usher in the ascent of bio power. By giving gays the courage, legitimacy and collective will to move out of the shadows, Stonewalls riots gave bio power access to the private lives of gays. If their sexual nature was blameless then remaining cloaked kept them from participating as productive social beings. Out in the open bio power could classify, subjectify, survey and normalize the modern gay. To produce
Friday, February 28, 2020
Case Study - Federal Deposit Insurance Corp - Essay Example For example, Toyland the owner of a departmental store in Houston, contracts with Pantaloon, a manufacturer of children toys in New York, for $15,000 worth toys. In the absence of negotiable instruments, Toyland would have to remit or take across the country the said amount which is risky and inconvenient. If the money is stolen in transit, it will create additional botheration for the company besides the financial loss. Check facilitates transfer of the funds through the designated bank. The transaction through the check is convenient to both the parties. Some types of negotiable instruments are promissory notes, certificates of deposit, drafts and checks. The legal requirements for an instrument to be negotiable: That it should be in writing and signed by the issuer and it should contain an unconditional promise to pay a fixed amount of money, as per terms and conditions described in the promise or order. It may be with or without interest. It is a bearer instrument or payable to order, either on demand or at prescribed future date. It should Ã¢â¬Å"not state any other undertaking or instruction by the person promising or ordering to do any act in addition to the payment of money. However, it may contain (a) an undertaking or promise relative to collateral to secure payment, (b) an authorization for confession of judgment, or (c) a waiver of benefit of any law intended for the advantage or protection of an obligor.Ã¢â¬ (p.780) A holder in course of a negotiable instrument has special rights. Ã¢â¬Å"Normally, the transferee of an instrumentÃ¢â¬âlike the assignee of a contractÃ¢â¬âgets only those rights in the instruments that are held by the person from whom he got the instrument. But a holder in due course can get better rights. A holder in due course takes a negotiable instrument free of all personal defenses, claims to the instrument, and claims in recoupment either of the obligor or of a third party.Ã¢â¬ (p.797)The advantage
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Environmental Management and Quality System - Essay Example In addition, it is a formal approach to managing the aspects of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, products, and services that have or could have an impact on the environment (Sheldon & Yoxon, 2002). According to Muchemu (2008), a quality management system is the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structures, processes, procedures, and resources needed to implement quality management. The international and national standards are used to form the foundation for effective quality management systems (Schlickman, 2003). Hallmark is the largest greeting card company in the world owned by a family since it was started more than a century ago. It has an ISO9001 and ISO14001 certified system and other certified systems like BRC, SMETA/SEDEX Ethical, and FSC. In addition, it has other non-certified systems like ISO18001, PEFC, and ISO26000. Having this certified systems means that it is dedicated to management review, legal compliance, continual improvement, internal communications, traceability, concer ns/ incidents and training. This organization has environmental objectives that build to a strategic plan for each area of operations business. It also has personal objectives via appraisal process and independent verification of achievements. The HallmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to implementation of environmental management system is by identifying key performance indicators, improvising a mean of measuring those performance indicators and designing a way of improving those performance indicators. One of the key performance indicators that the company has chosen in its approach to implementing environmental management system is to reduce water consumption by a further 5% by the end of this year, based on a 2009 baseline. The company measures this performance indicator using the monthly water usage figures provided for each site by the Yorkshire water company. In the company implementation approach, it aims to improve this key performance indicator by increasing awareness about water cons umption and the costs it brings to the company among all its employees. Moreover, the company is introducing an initiative on reducing water usage. This will be working with cross-functional teams to ensure a reduction for resources that the company uses in its processes. Another key performance indicator that Hallmark decided to use in its approach to implementing an environmental management system is ensuring a reduction in its carbon footprint by a further 2% by the end of this year compared to a 2008 baseline. In this approach, the company uses the annual reporting on energy consumption, LPG consumption and diesel consumption to measure this key performance indicator. To achieve various improvements on this performance indicator Hallmark has designed an energy management team that consists of cross-functional members. This team has been holding several meetings to discuss possible energy reduction initiatives that require being introduced. Moreover, the company has also designed staffs awareness program to educate its staffs on maximum energy utilization and effective energy saving techniques. To continue working towards recycling 95% of all solid wastes by the end of this year is another key perform
Friday, January 31, 2020
Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions in Relation to Organic Foods Essay Abstract The aim of this study is to find out the three (3) significant variables forming the positive attitude towards the buying the organic food in Peninsula Malaysia, which eventually lead to the ultimate intention in buying the organically-produced food. The different variables are focused on demographic characteristics on household income, product attributes and lastly the perceived value to the customers. This study shows that the household income is seemingly appeared to be an important predictor among the targeted segmentation in consuming organic food. Organic food attributes such as pricing, availability and environmentally friendliness of such organic food may influence consumer buying decision. Lastly, the perceived value from the customers towards organic food on its health effects, sensory appeal, nutrition-worth and belief of perceived benefits, often play an important role in cultivating the intention towards buying organic food. Introduction and Background of the Study Over the last two decades, there has been a remarkable increase in demand for organic-produced food or products. Organic food is often seen and marketed as health-conscious food which contains fewer contaminants, more nutrients and most importantly having a positive effect on the environment. It is known that some of these attributes are difficult to quantify, with the contrary that some of researcher has proved that they may cause such potential harm during the organic production. The organic market back in 80Ã¢â¬â¢s, while remaining a niche sector, has grown to be able to grab a share from the total spending on food in some countries in the recent years. Organic fruit and vegetables are amongst the products which have been expanding in the rapid production. The demand for organically-produced meat and dairy products has undergone the same rapid progress, with a corresponding increase in the need for organically grown forage and feed crops. This has led to a fast growth in consumer demand whereby the organic food sales have managed to gain a significant market share in the conventional food industry. The market for organically produced crops and commodities has become more structured, looking at the increased number of countries which have adopted uniform standards for organic food production. The standardization has also applied in the organic certification and labelling. While both the production and the marketing of the organic cultivation of temperate crops have developed, there is a trend to be seen whereby the developing countryÃ¢â¬â¢s farmers are actively involved in the organic farming. Problem Statement and Importance of the Research Organic agriculture industry, no doubt, has offers most of the developing countries a wide range of economic, environment, social and cultural benefits. Certifies organic products have now been growing fast and in the mist of entering the global market. Malaysia, on the other hand, is still in the starting spark-point in adapting the organic-food consumption while the developed countries such as North America and Europe have already gained the biggest market share in this newest industry. Due to expanding markets and attractive price premiums, Malaysia should invent and invest in organically-produced food, taking into consideration of various significant variables which may form the consumer behaviour towards organic food. We would like to highlight that the ultimate goal of this study is to understand consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s motivations behind organic food products purchases in order to enable organic producers to develop a more effective strategic marketing plan. The results could be used for the marketing planning of organic food products to enable proper marketing strategies, a proper sales channel and promotion to be targeted to these groups of consumers. Research Questions The present study aims to answer the following questions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are demographic characteristics of organic food buyers? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How do demographic characteristics affect consumer attitudes towards organic foods? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How product attributes effect consumer attitudes towards organic foods? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How consumer perceived values influence consumer attitudes towards organic foods? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the relationship between consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards organic foods and their intentions to purchase? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How can results of the study be applied by managers and marketers? Research Objectives. Regarding to the significance of the growing market of organic foods in the world, and to the previous studies on consumer attitudes towards organic foods and its effects on purchase intentions in several countries (e. g. Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States and Denmark) we intend to carry out such similar studies in Peninsula Malaysia with objectives as the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ To report the descriptive analysis on the organic buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ demographic characteristics Ã¢â¬ ¢ To identify the effects of demographic characteristics (specifically level of households income) on consumer attitudes towards organic foods. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To determine effects of product attributes on consumer attitudes towards organic foods Ã¢â¬ ¢ To investigate the relation of consumer perceived values to consumer attitudes towards organic foods Ã¢â¬ ¢ To determine the relationship between consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards organic foods and their intentions to purchase Ã¢â¬ ¢ To clarify implications for managers and marketers Literature Review Demographics Based on findings from previous research, demographic characteristics were evaluated as one of the major predictors in gaining intention to purchase the organic food in Peninsula Malaysia. According to Robinson R. and Smith C. (2002), the demographic of consumers consist of various characteristics namely the gender, age, household income and education level. Each element has been contributed in forming the valued attitudes towards buying the organic products. Hence, the demographic characteristics, especially on household income is seemingly significant and being the focus in this research. This will eventually lead to the desired intention in buying such products for daily consumption. Level of Household Income. Whilst referring to the studies done in the US, it is seemingly apparent that the demographic variables which herby refer as the income distribution, is significant predictors (Bartels Reinders, 2009). The research on this particular subject has proven that income positively influenced buying behaviour which in turn may cause the perceived buying behaviour towards the organic food. A same result has shown in Germany as well (Bartels Reinders, 2009). In Germany, demographic variables such as household income distribution have played an important role in developing significant effect on organic buying behaviour. However, the overall inevitability of the demographic characteristics was relatively different, taking into consideration of research carried in various Western countries. These findings verify the results of earlier studies by Clark Goldsmith (2006) and Im et al. (2003) proven that the intellectual practice on using the demographic characteristics such as household income distribution and domain specific innovativeness will be seen as strategic tools for market segmentation. In the Western countries, research has identified that the demand and willingness in expenditure on organic goods often affiliated closely with various socioeconomic and demographic variables (Wier et al. , 2008). In addition, Menghi (1997) found that the majority households with middle and higher income levels showed a greater tendency in purchase and consuming organic foods. However, it is shown that almost all of these studies are based upon hypothesized future behaviour rather than observed behaviour in both Denmark and UK. Hence, studies have been carried out by researchers to further invent on the influences of demographic characteristics especially in household income in guiding the intention of buying the organic goods. Through the research it is revealed that higher disposable household income (approximated by total food expenditure) will lead to higher positive intention in purchasing the organic food. Consumers with a lower household income alongside with lower level of education are found to be least likely to have heard of organic agriculture (Roitner-Schobesberger et al. , 2008). On a contrary, those who have a higher income and hold an academic degree are more likely to be the target segmentation in purchasing organic products (Roitner-Schobesberger et al. , 2008). It is also mentioned that the correlation between the household income level is very much linked to the level of education as well. As mentioned by Robinson R. and Smith C. (2002), intended purchases of sustainably produced foods did not differ for demographic characteristics such as household annual income educational attainment. Through the research carried out by Ross NJ.et al. (2000), they have suggested that consumers with a higher earning incomes were more likely to have purchased locally produced food, mainly focus on the organic consumption by various segmentations. Their research and findings were supported earlier by Govindasamy R. and Italia J. (1998) whereby the same results applied. Groups with a higher household income tend to have purchased foods produced with reduced pesticides. In UK particularly, social group is employed as an indicator of income brackets (Wier et al. , 2008). Research has revealed that the tendency in purchase the organic goods seem to increase in accordance to the given social status. However, the highest organic budget shares are observed for middle class households whilst shares in the upper middle class being in fact lower. Quite captivatingly, a similar phenomenon is observed to be happened in Denmark as well. Organic Food Attributes Organic food attributes influence consumer buying decision. Several empirical studies have been performed on customer perceptions of organic food attributes and how they formed the consumer attitudes towards food. In the present research, among different product attributes, we have selected: price of organic food, environmentally friendliness of organic food and organic food availability. Price of Organic Food Organic foods are often of a price premium above conventional products. According to Roitner-Schobesberger et. al (2008) in Thailand the price difference between organic and non-labeled conventional vegetables in Bangkok varied between 50 percent and 170 percent and in some cases even 400 percent. However, in some countries such as Finland there were not significant premium prices for organic foods (Tarkiainen and Sundqvist, 2005). As Roitner-Schobesberger et. al (2008) pointed out that despite the price difference of organic and non-organic food, nearly 60% of the Ã¢â¬Ëorganic buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ said that the price of organic products was not a problem. In addition, Ã¢â¬Ënon-organic buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ ranked some other items as a reason of not purchasing organic food rather than higher prices. Chryssohoidis Krystallis (2005) claimed that while 100 percent of people would prefer organic to conventional products with the assumption of similar price, this percentages dropped by only 20 percent when the same question was posed regardless the higher price of organic food. In other words, higher price is an important obstacle for a limited percentage of consumers. Roitner-Schobesberger et. al (2008) found out that in Bangkok men were more likely to purchase organic foods than women and concluded that it might be due to the reason of men being willing to pay a higher price premium for organic products than women. Similarly, a study in Klang Valey, Malaysia showed that women werre more likely than men to agree that they would purchase more organic foods if they were less expensive (Ahmed, 2010). Additionally, heavy users were on average stage whereby they are willing to pay higher price premiums than medium and light users (Wier et. al, 2008). Environmentally friendliness of organic food Consumers are getting more conscious and concerned with the consumption of chemical substance used in farming and preserving environment is becoming a strong attitude among consumers. According to Tarkiainen and Sundqvist (2005), subjective normsÃ¢â¬â¢ effect on attitudes has been mainly found in behaviors, that involved some kind of ethical decision, and also buying organic food can be seen as ethical decision reflecting environmental concern. In addition, perceived quality is associated with environmentally friendly practices (Ness et. al, 2009). The perception of organic food products as environmentally friendly was a common intuition and has been examined in several studies (Ahmed, 2010; Honkanen et. al, 2006). It is believed that when the consumers have more concern about their health and environmental protection, they will be more likely to have a positive attitude to organic foods (Ness et. al, 2010). Honkanen et. al (2006) found that ecologically oriented consumers were more likely to form intentions to purchase and consume organic food. In other words, the more people are concerned about environment, the more positive attitude they have towards organic food. Organic Food Availability Lack of organic food availability and variety in store is considered as one of the barriers to consumer purchase. Fresh vegetables (which include fresh herbs) were considered the most widely available organic product group rather than other organic foods (Roitner-Schobesberger et. al, 2008). Chryssohoidis Krystallis (2005) stated that limited availability was the main factor that hinders organic purchasing. Although according to Roitner-Schobesberger et. al (2008), in Thailand, majority of organic buyers were satisfied with availability of organic products. Most of them reported that they would like to buy more organic products, especially a wider range of vegetables. Value to the Customer. In every product that consumer purchased and used, they in turn are expecting value from it. Value can be defined as a benefit that consumer is receiving by using a product. Benefits here mean sensory appeal of the product, taste, fun, freshness, quality and healthiness of the products. These are some main reasons that encouraged consumer to purchase the organic food. The value may vary from one consumer to another; however there will definitely be one value that effect the buying attitude which motivate the buying intention of consumers. Health Effect of Organic Food Several perceptions contributed to health attribute include the reason of being good for health, good for children, not containing pesticides, high in fiber, natural and nutritious and safer to eat (Roitner-Schobesberger, et. al, 2008; Saher et. al 2006; Lockie et. al, 2002; Ness et. al, 2009). The perceived potential hazards of modern agricultural practices such as the use of pesticides and their residues in food were perceived to be associated with long term and unknown effects on health (Miles and Frewer, 2001;Wilkins Hillers, 1994; Williams Hammit, 2001). Saher et. al (2006) revealed that there is very little scientific support for the common beliefs that organic food would be more healthy or nutritious than regular foods, but the belief that they have these properties remains quite strong in consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset. The claim is debatable whether marketers can use the health claim for marketing purposes because most of the research concluded that there was no evidence that organic food was healthier or more nutritious than conventional food (Honkanen et. al, 2006). However, most studies in this area suggested that consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of organic food as a healthy nutrition is one the most significant motives for buyers. Lockie et al. (2002) pointed out that health was the one aspect consumers are least willing to compromise. Roitner-Schobesberger et. al (2008) in Bangkok, Thailand, examined the motives behind organic food purchase and pointed out that the most important motive was the expected positive health effects. Similarly in Malaysia, organic buyers believed that organic food was healthier compared to conventional grown food (Ahmed, 2010). In Thailand, the health aspect was closely associated with the residues from synthetic chemicals used in agriculture (Roitner-Schobesberger et. al, 2008). In fact, organic products often have a lower level of pesticide residues (Baker et al. , 2002). Lockie et. al (2002) revealed that although price was an important factor, organic consumers consider health has appeared as a more significant factor for purchasing organic food in Australia. These organic food consumers also believed that industrial methods of food processing constitute a threat to customerÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Another research by Schifferstein Oude Ophuis (1997) illustrated that well-being was rated among all other motives by organic food buyers. On the other hand, Tarkiainen and Sundqvist (2005) by examining specific organic products (bread and flour) claimed that health consciousness did not explained the general attitudes towards organic food, although they believed this results might be different by examining different organic products. Sensory Appeals Sensory appeals of organic food are part of the factors that provides value to customer. Sensory appeals include the taste, odor and also the texture of the organic product (Prescott et. al, 2002). Sometimes sensory appeals of the organic food need to be combined with the non-sensory factors such as organic food related expectations to create a value to customer which will affect their attitude towards buying organic food (Prescott et. al, 2002). Sensory factors are also influenced by cultures and background of consumers. For example, consumers from Western countries eat less spicy food compared to those from Asia. Spicy organic food might produce high value to consumers in Asian countries compared to Western. Intrinsic cues or sensory appeal that are associated with physical characteristics of the product such as taste, size, color, appearance, smell, feel and flavor were commonly used as indicators of quality on the organic food (Schifferstein et. al,1997). Quality is also value that consumers experiencing by consuming an organic food. Better sensory appeal of organic food will portray a better quality which will influence the attitude of purchasing an organic food and later increase the intention of buying the organic food. One of the most prominent sensory appeals that yield more value to consumer is taste. According to Roitner-Schobesbergeris et. al (2008), taste was the third important motives that consumers purchase organic food (Roitner-Schobesbergeris et. al, 2008). Others studies also emphasized that many organic food buyers believed that organic food products taste better than conventional food even if sensory evaluations have yielded inconsistent results (Fillion and Arazi,2002; McEachern and McClean,2002; Zhao et al. ,2007). Perceived Value. One of the studies conducted in eight countries concluded that individual attitudes towards buying organic food are primarily based on the belief about the benefits (Thogersen, 2000). Benefits or value to consumers such as healthy, taste better and environment friendly supersede all the other factors such as belief about the cost. The same proven in one of the study conducted in Klang Valley. Most of the respondents reported that they choose to buy organic food products because they perceived organic food as very healthy, fresher and natural (Bayaah Ahmad et.all, 2010). As such, value of organic food towards customersÃ¢â¬â¢ effect their attitudes towards buying which will motivates their intention of purchasing the organic product. Consumers also value organic food as nutritional food since it is produced using traditional method whereby the original nutrition from the food is preserved. Nutrition belief was one of the reasons that made people appeared to have different food styles and often express themselves as having food adventurousness or pickiness (Chen, 2007). Organic food adds value to consumers who has such belief and it will influence their intention of consuming it by affecting the buying behavior. Besides, Chen (2007) points out that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personal interests or traits act a part in establishing personal food choice criteria through the values held by the individual. These values comprise nutrition beliefs, weight control concerns, and so on. For instance, people seem to have different food-styles and often express themselves as having food adventurousness or pickiness. Another important motive to purchase organic food as reported by Roitner-Schobesbergeris et. al (2008) is the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s search for new, trendy and attractive food products. Attitudes towards Organic food and Intention to purchase Basically, consumer attitudes are found to be the most important predictor of intention to buy (Honkanen et. al, 2006). Several studies have found that higher perceived product quality leads to more positive re-purchase intentions (Bou-Llusar et. al, 2001; Hult, Kandemir 2004; Tarkiainen Sundqvist, 2005). Chen (7007) highlighted that if the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards organic foods is positive, the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude to purchase organic food will be more likely to be positive. This is also consistent with another study performed by Honkanen et. al (2006) indicating that relation between attitude and intention is positive and quite strong, indicating that consumers with positive attitudes towards consumption of organic food are more likely to form intentions to consume such food, therefore converting positive attitudes to intentions. Methodology Theoretical Research Framework [pic] Figure1. Theoretical Research Framework Hypothesis Development: Hypothesis 1: There is a relationship between demographic characteristics of consumers and their attitudes towards organic foods. Hypothesis 2: There is a relationship between organic food attributes and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes towards the organic food. Hypothesis 3: There is a positive relationship between values of organic food to customer with attitudes towards buying organic foods. Hypothesis 4: When the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards organic foods is positive, the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions to purchase organic foods will be more likely to be positive. Research Design. The questionnaires are only designed in English; since the respondents are assumed to be relatively high educated they will be able to answer the questions without any difficulties. Furthermore it will help to keep the original meaning and understanding that respondents perceived to have towards the questions. Types of questions in questionnaires are mostly closed ended question and only two open ended question. This will only consume little time for the respondent to complete the questionnaire which will encourage them to participate in this study. There are three main categories in the prepared questionnaires. The questions in the first category are more towards understanding demographic details of the respondent such as on the age, income level, ethnicity, religion and educational level. This is useful to confirm the background of the organic food consumers. There are also questions on the product attributes which the respondents are asked to identify what are the main attributes that attract the purchase and also to determine whether this factor have a positive effect towards consumer attitude on organic food. Last part in the questionnaires is designed to understand the value of organic food to customers. All these questions are to test four hypotheses of this study. Data Collection The target population consists of organic food buyers in Peninsula Malaysia. In order to carry out the sampling Peninsula Malaysia is divided in to 3 major regions namely Northern, Central and Southern region. Northern region will be represented by Penang, Central region will be Klang Valley and Southern region of Peninsula Malaysia is represented by Johor Bahru. These three areas are chosen based on the economic development and availability of the organic products. From each region shopping complexes and supermarkets that provide organic products are identified. By using random sampling, three shopping complexes and supermarkets in urban areas are selected. Since target respondent with higher educational level and purchasing power are scattered around these urban areas, these will be perfect places to conduct this research. Those three supermarkets and shopping complexes are ensured to be far from each other so that the collected samples will be more accurate in representing the population in each region. Total sample size comprises of 540 individual respondents is collected using convenience sampling and respondents will be approached randomly. Since this study is conducted in large scale, convenient sampling will be more cost effective compared to other types of sampling. Furthermore conducting other types of sampling will be time consuming and the accuracy of the collected samples to represent the actual population will be questionable. In order to collect the data, 60 self-administered consumer questionnaire surveys are distributed in each shopping complexes which will result in 180 questionnaires from each region. Considering the validity of the data, we are expecting a total of about 500 questionnaires to be usable in the later part of data analysis. Although there is no way of knowing if those included are representative of the overall population, the survey is still expected to give a first overview of relevant issues and to allow to derive insights into the perception of organic food buyers in Peninsula Malaysia. Data Analysis After data is collected, data will be edited and coded. Editing data is very essential part of data analysis especially when researches involve open ended questions. Editing is done immediately after data is collected so that the respondent can be contacted if any clarification needed. The edited data are identified through usage of different fond and colors. Coding is done before data processing is conducted. Since most of the data collected involve ordinal scale, coding becomes prudent. By doing this data accurately keyed in and avoid wrong interpretation of data. Base on the three sections in the questionnaire, data is also coded in three main groups. Data processing is done using a software program called SPSS version 17. First of all the edited and coded data is checked and scanned through. Wrongly entered and coded data will be identified using the software through methods like identification of the maximum value. Values like variance, standard deviation, mean and range are used to understand the effectiveness of the questions asked in the questionnaire and how respondents reacted to the questions. The reliability and validity test is done to check the credibility of the data. The reliability test also conducted to test the relationship of the variables through the reliability coefficient. 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B. , 2001, Measuring the relationship between firm perceived quality and customer satisfaction and its influence on purchase intentions, Total Quality Management, 12, 719Ã¢â¬â734. Chen, M. F, 2007, Consumer attitudes and purchase intentions in relation to organic foods in Taiwan: Moderating effects of food-related personality traits, Food Quality and Preference 18, 1008Ã¢â¬â1021. Chryssohoidis, G. M. , Krystallis, A. , 2005, Organic consumers_ personal values research: Testing and validating the list of values (LOV) scale and implementing a value-based segmentation task, Food Quality and Preference 16, 585Ã¢â¬â599. Clark, R. A. , Goldsmith, R. E. (2006). Interpersonal influence and consumer innovativeness. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(1), 34Ã¢â¬â43. Govindasamy R, Italia J. (1998). A willingness to purchase comparison of integrated pest management and conventional produce. Agribusiness. 14:403-414. Honkanen, P. , Verplanken, B. Olsen, S. O., 2006, Ethical values and motives driving organic food choice, Journal of Consumer Behaviour 5, 420Ã¢â¬â430. Fillion,L. ,Arazi,S. ,2002. Does organic food taste better? A claim substantiation approach. Nutrition and Food Science 32, 153-157. Im, S. , Bayus, B. L. , Mason, C. H. (2003). An empirical study of innate consumer innovativeness, personal characteristics, and new-product adoption behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(1), 61Ã¢â¬â73. Keillor, B. D. , Hult, G. T. M. , Kandemir, D. (2004). A study of the service encounter in eight countries. Journal of International Marketing, 12, 9Ã¢â¬â35. Lockie, S., Lyons, K. , Lawrence, G. , Mummery, K. , 2002. Eating Ã¢â¬ËgreenÃ¢â¬â¢: Motivations behind organic food consumption in Australia. Sociologia Ruralis 42, 23Ã¢â¬â40. McEachern,M. ,McClean,P. ,2002. Organic purchasing motivations and attitudes: are they ethical? International Journal of consumer studies 26, 85-92. Menghi, A. (1997). 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R. , 2008, Consumer perceptions of organic foods in Bangkok, Thailand, Food Policy 33, 112Ã¢â¬â121. Ross NJ, Anderson MD, Goldberg JP, Rogers BL. (2000). Increasing purchases of locally grown produce through worksite sales: an ecological model. J Nutr Educ. 32:304-313. Saher, M. , Lindeman, M. , Koivisto Hursti, U. , 2006, Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods, Appetite 46, 324Ã¢â¬â331. Schifferstein, H. N. J Oude Ophuist, P. M.A, 1997, Health-Relatede Determinants of organic food Consumption in the Netherlands, Food Quality and Preference 9, 119-133. Tarkiainen, A. Sundqvist, S. , 2005, Subjective norms, attitudes and intentions of Finnish consumers in buying organic food, British Food Journal 107, No. 11, 808-822 Thogersan. J, 2000, predicting consumer choices of organic food: Results from the CONDOR Project, Wier, M. , Jensen, K. , Andersen, L. 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Thursday, January 23, 2020
Whiskers: A Growing Fashion Prior to the Victorian era, men in England maintained cleanly shaven faces. With the mid-eighteen hundreds came a widespread shift toward facial hair in a multitude of styles (Camellia). The ability to grow whiskers began to be regarded as a sign of manhood. In pictures and photographs from the era, it is rare to find a male, past the age of manhood, depicted without facial hair in some capacity. As the century continued, the preferred style of facial hair grew progressively longer, bushier, and more pronounced (Nunn), but it remained Ã¢â¬Å"stylish for men to wear facial hair of all sizes and descriptionsÃ¢â¬ (Camellia). Whiskers of all types adorned the faces of Victorian men, from thin side-whiskers to full, bushy beards in accompaniment with thick mustaches. During the nineteenth century, side-whiskers, beginning as short sideburns, were Ã¢â¬Å"allowed to grow further down the faceÃ¢â¬ (Nunn) and developed into a variety of styles. Mutton-chops, Ã¢â¬Å"side whiskers that are narrow at the temple, broad along the lower cheek or jawline, and separated by a shaven chi...
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Ã · Imagine you are a company controller. Ã · Identify the internal control reporting options. Ã · Create criteria against which the options may be evaluated. Include internal controls for IT. Run for a low level or uncontested office within the student government association in your sophomore year. Getting into the bottom rung easily can help you climb the ladder more your later years. Future employers are likely to never know who small your school was, but will love seeing that experience on your resume. This pack comprises ACC 544 Week 6 Reporting Options, Evaluation Criteria, and Information Technology Controls Business Ã¢â¬â Accounting Ã · Imagine you are a company controller. Ã · Identify the internal control reporting options. Ã · Create criteria against which the options may be evaluated. Include internal controls for IT. Run for a low level or uncontested office within the student government association in your sophomore year. Getting into the bottom rung easily can help you climb the ladder more your later years. Future employers are likely to never know who small your school was, but will love seeing that experience on your resume. This pack comprises ACC 544 Week 6 Reporting Options, Evaluation Criteria, and Information Technology Controls Business Ã¢â¬â Accounting Ã · Imagine you are a company controller. Ã · Identify the internal control reporting options. Ã · Create criteria against which the options may be evaluated. Include internal controls for IT. Run for a low level or uncontested office within the student government association in your sophomore year. Getting into the bottom rung easily can help you climb the ladder more your later Ã¢â¬ ¦ To download this tutorial follow the link Ã¢â¬â https://bitly.com/12BvwtK Run for a low level or uncontested office within the student government association in your sophomore year. Getting into the bottom rung easily can help you climb the ladder more your later years. Future employers are likely to never know who small your school was, but will love seeing that experience on your resume. Business Ã¢â¬â Accounting Ã · Imagine you are a company controller. Ã · Identify the internal control reporting options. Ã · Create criteria against which the options may be evaluated. Include internal controls for IT.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Walt Whitman has neither related his biography nor glorified himself in the poem as the title suggests. Infact, the apparent indication of the title is here of no importance. The poem is the song of celebration of every object of nature in general where a question put to the poet by a little child triggers off a philosophical trend of thought relating to death and the meaning of death. In the poem, he has celebrated his own idea (that nothing collapses due to death but instead life moves on) and imaginary power while showcasing his optimistic views on life A little child questions the poet, What is grass? that sets his mind wondering when he has nor ready answer for the childs question and is unable to answer it. He muses that perhapsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It may be from old people or from offspring taken soon out of their mothers laps. This brings out the fact that everyone must die eventually, whether due to natural causes or to the bloodshed of warfare. He then contrasts t he colour of the grass to the hair of old women when he says This grass is very dark to be from the white heads of old mothers thus implying that the graves below are that of young people, people who have died before their time. He continues to talk about the grasss colour claiming it to be darker than the colourless beards of old men. He perceives that the grass is coming from the faint red roofs of mouths of the dead below and that the dead below are trying to tell him something after all, so many uttering tonguesÃâ¦. Do not come from the roofs of mouths for nothing. Indicating that the uttering tongues is the grass and they must be carrying some meaning with them when the sprout over the graves. The poet wishes that he could translate the hints about dead young men and women as well as the hints about old men and mothers, and the offspring taken soon out of their laps all which is in the form of grass. He wants to decipher the secrets it holds and know more about the lives of t hese men and women over whose graves the grass now grows. He is perplexed and throws out the question What do you think has become of the young and old men? And what do you think has become of the women andShow MoreRelatedWalt Whitman Song of Myself1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJanuary 20th, 2012 ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Only Natural: Racial and Gender Equality in Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ In the opening line of Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Song of Myself,Ã¢â¬ it becomes immediately evident that his song is not about himself, but about the entire human race: Ã¢â¬Å"I celebrate myself, and sing myself, and what I assume you shall assume, / for every atom belonging to me as good belongs to youÃ¢â¬ . His poem extols the mundane aspects of everyday life that a traditional poet of his day would not have consideredRead MoreSong Of Myself By Walt Whitman1795 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageschemical also released during sex and eating. In his gutsy poem to America, Song of Myself, Walt Whitman uses repetition to make music that will bring pleasure to his readers and also shape how they perceive the world. Whitman begins his poem by boldly stating that he celebrates himself. Like the chorus to a song he repeats the word Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ throughout the entirety of the poem. The meaning of the word transitions from Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ being Whitman himself, to the people reading his book , and then ending with the readerRead MoreSong of Myself by Walt Whitman2251 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"I celebrate myself, and sing myself / and what I shall assume you shall assumeÃ¢â¬ (Whitman 1-2). These lines not only open up the beginning of one the best poems of the American Romantic period, but they also represent a prominent theme of one of this periodÃ¢â¬â¢s best poet, Walt Whitman. In Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Song of Myself, Whitman deals with his time periodÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent theme of democracy. Whitman tells readers that they must not only observe the democratic life but they must become one with it. AsRead MoreThe Song Of Myself By Walt Whitman And Howl1353 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBoth Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ by Walt Whitman and Ã¢â¬Å"HowlÃ¢â¬ by Allen Ginsberg are important pieces of American poetry. Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ was written in the 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s and Ã¢â¬Å"HowlÃ¢â¬ was written about a century later. Both poets were part of groups th at wanted to change America Ã¢â¬â the Transcendentalists and the Beats. Transcendentalists believed in the goodness of people and nature. They believe that people are at their best when they are truly independent. The Beats rejected standard values and materialism. They experimentedRead MoreAnalysis Of Song Of Myself By Walt Whitman1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesself-wisdom, discovery and betterment Ã¢â¬â is the ground-breaking poet, Walt Whitman. In his poetry, Whitman explores the surreal and cosmic, relating the supernatural to the mundane .With an emphasis on oneness with nature, WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s celebratory attitude of the human soul in all of its complexity, beauty, and contradictions is most noted in his extensive poem titled Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ , and is developed further in his poem Ã¢â¬Å"KosmosÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, Whitman pioneers the future of modern poetry while incorporating hisRead MoreSong of Myself by Walt Whitman903 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesultimate threat to the United States at the time, Whitman wished to mend Americas social and political demands through his poetry. Throughout WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s works, the reader can evidently observe the widths and basis of his social and political philosophy and the layers of various circumstances that exist within his American culture Ã¢â¬â which is an essential part of his democratic vision. Many of Whitmans poems, including major works such as Song of Myself, can be studied with this tidbit, but yet theseRead MoreWalt Whitman s Song Of Myself1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ Walt Whitman was an American poet born in May 31, 1819 in New York, and he died in March 26, 1892 in New Jersey. He grew up going to school in separate facilities from people of color, so he was growing up along with the nation. He was self-taught by exploring things for himself, for example, going to the museums when he could. Whitman as a young boy alternated from being in the city to being in the countryside with his grandparents. He was exposed to be beingRead MoreSong of Myself by Walt Whitman Essay1343 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn his first anthology of poems entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ , Walt Whitman reveals some of his views on democracy through the use of symbolism and free verse poetry. His use of symbolism and free verse poetry creates indeterminacy, giving the reader hints rather than answers about the nature of the poem. In the sixth part of Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ , a child asks the narrator of the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"What is the grass?Ã¢â¬ (Whitman). Instead of simply giving an answer, the narrator cannot make up his mind, and stumblesRead MoreAnalysis Of Walt Whitman s Song Of Myself1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa Poem Using the Same Ideas from Another Person The idea that the artist is a single individual coming to stand and speak for the masses is one of EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s main transcendentalist ideas. Walt Whitman met EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal artist description as he spoke as one man for the multitude in his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ , which openly demonstrates WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in the imperative indivisibility of self-reliance. He shares many of the same ideas as Emerson, such as the importance of the self and views on religionRead MoreAnalysis Of Walt Whitman s Song Of Myself Essay2414 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages The prevalence of Hegelianism in Walt WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Song of MyselfÃ¢â¬ is indisputable, yet a consensus on the meaning remains elusive, and therefore, insidious to the democratic progress Whitman attempts. Whitman uses Hegel to support his ideas about the dialectical theory of consciousness, the spiritualization and importance of art, and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s manifest destiny. I later elucidate on these catego ries and break them down into more precise ideas. I use a variety of scholars for evidence of structural